1- working on or near fragile surfaces, working on pitched roofs, deterioration of
materials, unprotected edges, unstable or poorly maintained access equipment,
weather conditions, falling materials
2- The work at height risk prevention hierarchy:
• Avoid work at height.
• Use work equipment or other measures to prevent falls where work at height cannot
• Use work equipment or other measures to minimise the distance and consequences
of a fall where the risk of a fall cannot be eliminated
3- • Do not site or handle near live overheads.
• Site on a solid, flat base so that the feet do not sink into the ground. Weight should
only be supported on the styles, never on the rungs.
• Angle of the ladder should ideally be 75° to the horizontal or at a ratio of 1:4
distance away from the wall to height (1 out: 4 up).
• Top of the ladder must rest against a solid support.
• Ideally the ladder should be secured at the top.
• If this is not possible, then guy ropes should be attached and secured to firm
• If this is not possible, ladder should be “footed” by someone standing on the bottom rung.
4- Factors that might cause the collapse of an independent tied scaffold:
• Overloaded work platform.
• Scaffold built on soft ground without use of adequate sole boards.
• Scaffold not tied adequately to building.
• Insufficient bracing incorporated into scaffold.
• Standards not upright.
• Standards bent, buckled or heavily corroded.
• High winds.
• Incorrect couplers used to join tubes together.
• Scaffold struck by mobile plant.
• Scaffold erected by incompetent workers.
• Scaffold not inspected prior to use.