Element 1.1

Topic Progress:

2.1.1

1- Minimum welfare provision means ensuring that workers have access to drinking water;
sanitary conveniences; washing facilities; changing rooms and accommodation for clothing;
and places to rest and eat food

2- effects of a cold environment include:
• Hypothermia – core temperature drops below 35°C; causes shivering, mood swings,
irrational behaviour, lethargy, drowsiness and death.
• Frost bite – body tissues are frozen causing tissue damage and in extreme cases necrosis,
gangrene and amputation.
• Slip hazards – in particular floors will become slippery with ice.
• Freeze burn injuries – from skin contact with very cold surfaces.

3 – For a cold environment:
• Prevent or protect workers from draughts.
• Shield/lag extremely cold surfaces.
• Provide warm refuges – where workers can warm up.
• Provide PPE – such as insulated jackets, trousers, boots, balaclavas, etc.
• Provide frequent breaks and job rotation.
• Provide easy access to hot food and drinks.
• Scrape, salt or grit icy floors.
• Provide IITS